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VALCOUR BAY - Historia

VALCOUR BAY - Historia


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Al general Schuyler. Del General Arnold

Isla de Schuyler, 12 de octubre de 1776

Estimado general: Ayer por la mañana a las ocho en punto, la flota enemiga, que consta de un barco que monta dieciséis cañones, una nieve monta el mismo número, una goleta de catorce cañones, dos de doce, dos balandras, un bombardero y un gran Un barco (que no subió), con quince o veinte botes de fondo plano o góndolas, que llevaban un cañón de doce o dieciocho libras en la proa, apareció frente a Cumberland Head. Inmediatamente nos preparamos para recibirlos. Se ordenó la navegación de las galeras y del Royal Savage; el resto de nuestra flota estaba anclada. A las once en punto corrieron al abrigo de Valcour y comenzaron el ataque. La goleta, por una mala gestión, cayó a sotavento y fue atacada primero; uno de sus mástiles resultó herido y su aparejo se disparó. El capitán consideró prudente llevarla a la punta de Valcour, donde se salvaron todos los hombres. La abordaron y por la noche le prendieron fuego. A las doce y media el compromiso se hizo general y muy cálido. Algunas de las naves enemigas y todas sus góndolas batían y remaban a tiro de mosquete de nosotros. Continuaron un fuego muy caliente con rondas y tiros de uva hasta las cinco de la tarde, cuando creyeron conveniente retirarse a unos seis o setecientos metros de distancia, y continuaron el fuego hasta que oscureció. El Congreso y Washington han sufrido mucho; esta última perdió a su primer teniente asesinado, capitán y capitán heridos. El New-York perdió a todos sus oficiales, excepto a su capitán. El Filadelfia se hundió en tantos lugares que se hundió aproximadamente una hora después de que terminó el compromiso. El total de muertos y heridos asciende a unos sesenta. El enemigo desembarcó una gran cantidad de indios en la isla y en cada ribera, que mantenían un fuego incesante sobre nosotros, pero nos hicieron poco daño. Al parecer, el enemigo tenía más de mil en batteaus, preparados para el abordaje. Sufrimos mucho por falta de marineros y artilleros. Yo mismo me vi obligado a apuntar la mayoría de las armas a bordo del Congreso, que creo que funcionó bien. El Congreso recibió siete disparos entre el viento y el agua, fue descascarado una docena de veces, tuvo su palo mayor herido en dos lugares y su patio en uno. El Washington fue descascarado varias veces, su mástil mayor atravesado y debe tener uno nuevo. Ambos recipientes tienen muchas fugas y necesitan reparación.

Tras consultar con el general Waterbury y el coronel Wigglesworth, se consideró prudente regresar a Crown Point, ya que las municiones de cada barco se habían gastado casi las tres cuartas partes. A las siete en punto, el coronel Wigglesworth, en el Trumbull, se puso en marcha, siguieron las góndolas y los pequeños barcos, y el Congreso y Washington llegaron a la retaguardia. El enemigo no intentó molestarnos. La mayor parte de la flota está anclada en este momento. El viento es pequeño hacia el sur. La flota enemiga está en camino a sotavento y golpea. Tan pronto como se detengan nuestras filtraciones, toda la flota hará el mayor envío a Crown Point, donde le ruego que nos envíe municiones y más pedidos. En general, creo que hemos tenido un escape muy afortunado y tenemos una gran razón para devolver nuestro humilde y sincero agradecimiento al Dios Todopoderoso por preservarnos y liberarnos a muchos de nosotros de nuestros más que salvajes enemigos.


Revolución americana: Batalla de la isla Valcour

La batalla de la isla Valcour se libró el 11 de octubre de 1776 durante la Revolución Americana (1775-1783) y vio a las fuerzas estadounidenses en el lago Champlain enfrentarse con los británicos. Habiendo abandonado la invasión de Canadá, los estadounidenses se dieron cuenta de que se necesitaría una fuerza naval para bloquear a los británicos en el lago Champlain. Organizado por el general de brigada Benedict Arnold, se inició el trabajo en una pequeña flota. Completada en el otoño de 1776, esta fuerza se encontró con un escuadrón británico más grande cerca de la isla Valcour. Mientras los británicos sacaban lo mejor de la acción, Arnold y sus hombres pudieron escapar hacia el sur. Si bien fue una derrota táctica para los estadounidenses, la demora causada por ambos lados al tener que construir flotas impidió que los británicos invadieran desde el norte en 1776. Esto permitió a los estadounidenses reagruparse y prepararse para la decisiva Campaña de Saratoga el año siguiente.


Complejo de islas del lago Champlain

El Complejo de Islas del Lago Champlain abarca aproximadamente 1,162 acres de tierras de la Reserva Forestal Adirondack entre seis islas y tres lanchas de botes en la orilla occidental del Lago Champlain. Las islas son ricas en historia que va desde antes del asentamiento europeo hasta tiempos recientes, incluidos los períodos de exploración y asentamiento, la guerra franco-india, la guerra revolucionaria y la guerra de 1812.

Se puede acceder a las islas del lago Champlain en barco desde uno de los muchos puertos deportivos públicos y privados o sitios de lanzamiento de barcos en el lado del lago de Nueva York o Vermont. Las seis islas están ubicadas en el lago Champlain comenzando justo al este de Plattsburgh en el condado de Clinton y van hacia el sur casi hasta Ticonderoga en el condado de Essex. La isla Valcour y la isla Schuyler se clasifican como primitivas, mientras que las islas restantes se clasifican como bosque salvaje.


Faro de Bluff Point en la isla Valcour

Isla Valcour, la más grande de las seis islas con 968 acres, está ubicada al sureste de la ciudad de Plattsburgh en la ciudad de Perú. Esta isla y las aguas que la rodean contienen una de las historias más ricas de todas las islas. Bluff Point Lighthouse se encuentra en la costa occidental de la isla y Seton House se encuentra en la costa suroeste. Valcour Bay fue el sitio de la batalla de la isla Valcour, una importante batalla naval de la Guerra de Independencia. La isla tiene senderos para caminatas, sitios designados para tiendas de campaña primitivas, áreas de picnic y playas.

Isla jardín, de menos de 1 acre de tamaño, se encuentra al sur de la isla Valcour en la ciudad de Perú. La isla sobresale bruscamente del agua con acantilados de piedra caliza desnudos de 15 a 20 pies y no tiene instalaciones recreativas.

Isla Schuyler, la segunda isla más grande con 161 acres, está ubicada a 12 millas al sur de Garden Island en la ciudad de Chesterfield, aproximadamente a 1 milla del Port Douglas Boat Launch. La Flota Naval Colonial pasó la noche en la Isla Schuyler después de escapar del bloqueo británico al amparo de la oscuridad durante la Batalla de la Isla Valcour.

Cole Island, de menos de 1 acre, se encuentra en la ciudad de Westport, a 5 millas al sur del Westport Boat Launch. Cole Island se usa para hacer picnics y otras actividades de uso diurno, pero es demasiado pequeña para sostener el uso durante la noche. Escondida en un puerto bien protegido, la isla ofrece protección contra los fuertes vientos del sur, lo que la convierte en un fondeadero popular para los navegantes recreativos. Cuenta la leyenda que el padre Isaac Jogues fue traído a esta isla por sus captores Mohawk y torturado. La isla recibe una cantidad considerable de uso diurno del campamento de verano cercano.

Isla Sheepshead, de menos de 1 acre, se encuentra a 14 millas al sur de Cole Island, más allá de Port Henry y Crown Point, y no tiene instalaciones recreativas.

Isla de la boya de señales, de menos de 1 acre de tamaño, es la isla más al sur ubicada a 2.5 millas al sur de la isla Sheepshead en la ciudad de Ticonderoga. La pequeña isla tiene una boya de señalización de la Guardia Costera en el agua y no tiene instalaciones recreativas.

Información de travesía para el noreste de Adirondacks proporciona información general sobre condiciones de travesía y condiciones estacionales, avisos específicos sobre cierres y condiciones de senderos, carreteras, puentes y otra infraestructura y enlaces al clima, regulaciones estatales de uso de la tierra, recreación de bajo impacto y más.

Actividades Destacadas

Paseo en barco

La información general sobre navegación incluye consejos de seguridad con enlaces a reglas y regulaciones y listas de lanzamientos de botes DEC por condado.

Se puede acceder a las islas en barco desde uno de los cuatro lanzamientos de botes del DEC o desde cualquiera de los numerosos lanchas y puertos deportivos municipales y privados.

Peru Dock Boat Launch tiene un enfoque de superficie de macadán que es lo suficientemente grande como para acomodar grandes unidades de automóviles y remolques. La rampa se extiende 50 pies y está equipada con muelles flotantes de aluminio con características de accesibilidad. Las dos áreas de estacionamiento incluyen estacionamiento accesible y pueden albergar un total de 50 autos y remolques. Un inodoro accesible con descarga se encuentra en el sitio. Además, hay una bomba para botes para embarcaciones equipadas con instalaciones sanitarias.

Port Douglas Boat Launch tiene una moderna rampa de lanzamiento de concreto de dos carriles con muelles flotantes de aluminio con características de accesibilidad. El área de estacionamiento incluye estacionamiento accesible y tendrá capacidad para 20 autos y remolques. Un baño portátil accesible se encuentra en el sitio.

Willsboro Bay Boat Launch tiene una plataforma de lanzamiento lo suficientemente ancha para que los barcos y vehículos grandes den la vuelta. La rampa de concreto es un lanzamiento gemelo de dos carriles con muelles flotantes de aluminio con características de accesibilidad. Este espacioso sitio cuenta con espacio de estacionamiento para 100 autos y remolques, incluido estacionamiento accesible. Hay un baño con bóveda accesible. Además, hay una bomba para botes para embarcaciones equipadas con instalaciones sanitarias.

Westport Boat Launch tiene una moderna rampa de concreto de dos carriles con muelles flotantes de aluminio con características de accesibilidad. El área de estacionamiento tiene capacidad para 30 automóviles con remolques y tiene 6 carriles exclusivos para automóviles. También hay estacionamiento accesible y baños accesibles.


Muelle cerca de Seton House

Los muelles se retiran de los botes de DEC cada año a fines de octubre.

La isla Valcour solo tiene un muelle utilizable en este momento, que se encuentra en Seton House, cerca del extremo sur de la isla. Se puede acceder directamente a la mayoría de los campamentos y áreas de picnic en pequeñas embarcaciones. No ates a los árboles.

Los botes pequeños pueden acceder a la isla Valcour en las costas de Bulhead Bay, North Bay, Butterfly Bay (incluida la & quot; área de picnic & quot) y en las cercanías de los campamentos 21 y 22 en la costa este.

Valcour Island, Schuyler Island y Cole Island son anclajes populares para cruceros de cabina y otros barcos grandes.

Remar

La información general sobre el remo incluye consejos prácticos y de seguridad y enlaces a reglas y regulaciones.

Se puede acceder a las islas en barco desde uno de los cuatro lanchas de botes del DEC o desde cualquiera de los numerosos lanchas y puertos deportivos municipales y privados. Los lanzamientos de botes de DEC son Peru Dock, frente al faro de la isla Valcour Port Douglas, al suroeste de la isla Schuyler en la bahía Willsboro, a siete millas al sur de Port Douglas y Westport, a 5 millas al norte de la isla Cole.

Isla Valcour solo tiene un muelle utilizable en este momento, que se encuentra en Seton House, cerca del extremo sur de la isla. Los remeros pueden acceder a Valcour Island en las costas de Bulhead Bay, North Bay, Butterfly Bay (incluida la & quot; área de picnic & quot) y en las cercanías de los campamentos 21 y 22 en la costa este.

Isla Valcour y Isla Schuyler son parte de Lake Champlain Paddlers Trail (sale del sitio web de DEC).

El lago Champlain es parte de Northern Forest Canoe Trail (sale del sitio web de DEC).

El lago Champlain es utilizado por barcos a motor de todos los tamaños. Las olas pueden ser extremadamente grandes cuando hace viento, especialmente si el viento es del norte o del sur. Los remeros deben tener cuidado: remar durante la mañana cuando los vientos son bajos y permanecer cerca de la orilla tanto como sea posible.

Pesca

La información general sobre la pesca incluye consejos de pesca con enlaces a temporadas, reglas y regulaciones. Puede garantizar buenas oportunidades de pesca en el futuro si pesca de manera responsable. Si nunca ha estado pescando pero quiere intentarlo, es fácil aprender a pescar.

Los pescadores pueden usar los mismos lanzamientos manuales que los remeros, los mismos lanzamientos de botes que los navegantes y los mismos campamentos que los campistas para acceder y pescar en el lago Champlain.

El lago Champlain es un lugar de pesca popular para varias especies de peces de caza. Las poblaciones de salmón del Atlántico sin litoral y trucha de lago continúan mejorando al igual que el tamaño de los peces capturados gracias a los esfuerzos para controlar las poblaciones de lamprea de mar en el lago.

El lago también es popular entre los pescadores de lubina: anualmente se llevan a cabo varios torneos en el lago. Tanto la lobina de boca ancha como la lobina de boca chica se pueden encontrar en bahías, bancos de arena y a lo largo de las costas, particularmente alrededor de las islas.

El lago Champlain también contiene lucio, lucio, carpa, toro, ventosa y pez pan como perca amarilla, tipo de pez negro, tipo de pez blanco, perca blanca, lubina, agallas azules, pez luna de calabaza y olía.

En el lago también se encuentran especies exóticas como el aleta de arco, la lota (maruca), la cabeza de oveja (tambor de agua dulce) y el garro de nariz larga.

Hay guías y cartas disponibles para pescar en el lago Champlain y se pueden encontrar a través de The Adirondack Coast (sale del sitio web de DEC) o Lake Champlain Region (sale del sitio web de DEC).

Se aplican regulaciones de pesca especiales (dejando el sitio web de DEC al sitio web oficial del proveedor de la Guía de regulaciones de pesca) y se permite la pesca en hielo. El lanzamiento de botes de la bahía de Willsboro se usa comúnmente para acceder al hielo en la bahía de Willsboro en el invierno y el lanzamiento de botes municipal en Port Henry brinda acceso a la bahía de Bulwagga para los pescadores de hielo.

Un acuerdo de licencia recíproco permite a los pescadores con una licencia de pesca de Nueva York o Vermont en gran parte del lago. Compruebe para asegurarse de qué parte del lago está incluida o excluida del acuerdo de licencia recíproca.

La información general sobre Adirondack / Lake Champlain Fishing proporciona información sobre la pesca en Adirondacks y enlaces a las principales aguas de pesca, listas de población, acceso público a la pesca y aguas abiertas para la pesca en hielo enumeradas por condado.

Senderismo

La información general sobre caminatas incluye consejos prácticos y de seguridad y enlaces a reglas y regulaciones.


Porción del Nomad Trail

Las 12 millas de senderos para caminatas en Isla Valcour son los únicos senderos designados en cualquiera de las islas. El sistema de senderos se extiende desde el extremo sur, dando vueltas alrededor de la circunferencia e incluye dos senderos bisectores que atraviesan el centro de la isla. Los senderos alrededor de la isla brindan una excelente experiencia natural y ofrecen excelentes vistas panorámicas.

La isla Valcour solo tiene un muelle utilizable en este momento, que se encuentra en Seton House, cerca del extremo sur de la isla. Los remeros y pequeñas embarcaciones pueden acceder a la isla en las costas de Bulhead Bay, North Bay, Butterfly Bay (incluida la & quot; área de picnic & quot) y en las cercanías de los campamentos 21 y 22 en la costa este.

Sendero circular del faro de la isla Valcour es un sendero de 0.6 millas que rodea el faro de Bluff Point.

Sendero perimetral de la isla Valcour Es un sendero de 9.2 millas alrededor del perímetro de la isla, principalmente a la vista del agua. Hay tres miradores desde lo alto de los acantilados en la costa este de la isla. El sendero se conecta con Valcour Island Lighthouse Loop y pasa por Seton House, donde se puede acceder desde los muelles. Todos los campamentos y áreas de pícnic se conectan al sendero ya sea directamente o a través de senderos de espuelas.

Camino salvaje real se extiende 1,4 millas en un arco entre las secciones este y oeste del sendero perimetral de la isla Valcour en la parte norte de la isla.

Sendero nómada se extiende 1,2 millas entre las secciones este y oeste del sendero perimetral de la isla Valcour cerca del centro de la isla.

Sendero del conector del camping se extiende 0.2 millas desde los senderos perimetrales hasta los Campings 13 y 14 en la costa este de la isla.

Cámping

La información general sobre campamentos fuera de pista incluye consejos prácticos y de seguridad y enlaces a reglas y regulaciones.

Isla Valcour tiene 29 sitios de tiendas primitivos designados en sus costas. Los campings están disponibles por orden de llegada y están marcados con un disco amarillo & quotCamp Here & quot y un número. Se debe obtener un permiso gratuito del cuidador del DEC durante el verano. La mayoría de los campamentos tienen letrinas, mesas de picnic y chimeneas.

Se puede acceder a la mayoría de los sitios de tiendas de campaña, pero no a todos, directamente desde el agua. Los remeros y botes pequeños pueden acceder a la isla en las costas de Bulhead Bay, North Bay, Butterfly Bay (incluida la & quot; área de picnic & quot) y en las cercanías de los sitios de tiendas 21 y 22 en la costa este y usar el sendero del perímetro de la isla Valcour y otros senderos para acceder a los sitios de la carpa.

Los sitios para tiendas de campaña son algunos de los lugares para acampar más buscados en el lago. Durante cualquier día cálido y soleado de verano, los campings alrededor de la isla Valcour se llenan rápidamente. La mayoría de los días de la semana se puede encontrar un camping, pero los sitios más deseados suelen estar ocupados.

Isla Schuyler tiene tres campamentos en su costa occidental que están conectados por un sendero de 0.3 millas. Los remeros y pequeñas embarcaciones pueden acceder a la isla cerca de los campings.

Los campistas que prefieren más comodidades pueden acampar en Ausable Point Campground y Crown Point Campground y navegar en bote o remar a las islas.

Picnic

Se permite hacer picnic en todas las islas.


Faro de Bluff Point

Bahía de las Mariposas en la costa occidental de la isla Valcour tiene un área de uso diurno con mesas de picnic.

Los sitios designados para carpas en Isla Schuyler se pueden utilizar para hacer picnics cuando no están ocupados por campistas, al igual que otros lugares de la isla.

Cole Island es un lugar popular para los excursionistas.

Características históricas

Faro de Bluff Point sobre Isla Valcour está en el Registro Nacional de Lugares Históricos y en el Registro de Lugares Históricos del Estado de Nueva York. La construcción del faro se completó en 1874. El faro era parte de una serie de balizas construidas por el gobierno federal a lo largo del lago Champlain. Se encuentra a 95 pies sobre la costa occidental de la isla y tiene 36 pies de altura. El faro protegió el concurrido canal entre la isla Valcour y la costa de Nueva York durante 57 años antes de caer en mal estado.

Mientras estuvo en servicio, la estructura fue un hogar para el farero y su familia. El encargado de la iluminación registró las condiciones meteorológicas y el consumo de combustible a diario. En 1929, se construyó una torre de estructura de acero a unos 100 pies del antiguo faro. El faro original fue dado de baja en 1931 y vendido.

En 1986, el estado de Nueva York comenzó a negociar con el propietario del faro para comprar el faro y el terreno en el que se encontraba. La estructura estaba sólida, pero había caído en mal estado debido en parte al vandalismo. Preocupado de que el estado destruyera la estructura o dejara que siguiera deteriorándose, el propietario incluyó una cláusula en el contrato de venta que otorgaba a la Asociación Histórica del Condado de Clinton (sale del sitio web de DEC) una servidumbre de conservación para el faro.

En 1987, la Asociación Histórica del Condado de Clinton estableció una donación para la restauración y el mantenimiento del faro. Las reparaciones involucraron una combinación de trabajo remunerado y trabajo voluntario, mientras que varias empresas locales donaron servicios o bienes al proyecto. En noviembre de 2004, la Guardia Costera de los Estados Unidos, el Departamento de Conservación Ambiental del Estado de Nueva York y la Asociación Histórica del Condado de Clinton completaron la reactivación del histórico faro de Bluff Point, devolviendo el faro a sus funciones originales como una verdadera ayuda para la navegación. Si bien el faro está actualmente cerrado por reparaciones, cuando se complete el trabajo, la Asociación Histórica del Condado de Clinton volverá a proporcionar voluntarios para el personal del faro los fines de semana. Los voluntarios proporcionarán recorridos e información sobre el faro a los visitantes.

Casa Seton es un campamento histórico ubicado en el lado suroeste de la isla, construido en 1929 y anteriormente propiedad de la familia Seton. La casa de piedra muestra la forma en que la isla se usó históricamente y es elegible para ser incluida en los registros históricos estatales y nacionales.

El muelle que una vez proporcionó acceso a la casa ahora proporciona acceso a DEC para realizar el mantenimiento de la isla, operaciones de búsqueda y rescate, actividades de extinción de incendios y otras funciones.

La Casa Seton no está abierta al público actualmente.

Observación de vida silvestre

El venado de cola blanca y muchos pequeños mamíferos se encuentran en Isla Valcour y Isla Schuyler.

Isla Valcour es un Área de Conservación de Aves designada. Se han observado águilas calvas en las cercanías de las islas Valcour y Schuyler. Los acantilados en el extremo sur de la isla Valcour son un nido histórico de halcón peregrino, aunque no ha habido anidación allí durante varias décadas.

Las islas Four Brothers, de propiedad privada, contienen la colonia de reproducción de aves acuáticas más grande del noreste de Nueva York. Las islas están ubicadas al este de Willsboro Point. El público tiene prohibido entrar sin autorización a las islas.

La información general sobre animales incluye enlaces a información sobre aves, mamíferos, peces, reptiles, anfibios e insectos que habitan o migran por el estado.

Las Adirondacks contienen grandes extensiones de hábitat de vida silvestre con algunos hábitats boreales, pantanosos, alpinos y otros hábitats únicos. Muchas especies de aves y mamíferos son exclusivas de las Adirondacks o se encuentran principalmente aquí. Más de 50 especies de mamíferos y cientos de especies de aves habitan o pasan por las Adirondacks en una época del año u otra, por lo que no es improbable que atrape un sitio de vida silvestre durante su viaje.

Más información sobre la flora y la fauna de Adirondack (sitio web de Leaves DEC) del Centro Ecológico SUNY ESF Adirondack.

Puede proteger la vida silvestre y el hábitat de la vida silvestre al verlos.

Vida silvestre encontrada en las Adirondacks

Caza y trampas

La información general sobre la caza y la información general sobre la captura incluye consejos prácticos y de seguridad con enlaces a temporadas, reglas y regulaciones.

Se permite la caza y la captura en todas las islas. Los cazadores y tramperos pueden utilizar las áreas de estacionamiento y los senderos utilizados por los excursionistas, las lanchas de mano utilizadas por los remeros y las lanchas utilizadas por los navegantes para acceder a las tierras y aguas.

Isla Valcour y Isla Schuyler ambos tienen poblaciones de ciervos de cola blanca residentes. Se fomenta la caza de ciervos en las islas para proteger la vegetación nativa del pastoreo excesivo.

La caza de aves acuáticas es popular en las islas y sus alrededores.

Recreación accesible

La información general sobre recreación accesible incluye enlaces a otros lugares con oportunidades de recreación accesibles e información sobre permisos para acceso motorizado.

Lanzamiento del barco en el muelle de Perú cuenta con muelles flotantes de aluminio con características de accesibilidad, espacios de estacionamiento accesibles y un inodoro accesible con descarga.

Lanzamiento del barco de Port Douglas cuenta con muelles flotantes de aluminio con características de accesibilidad, espacios de estacionamiento accesibles y un baño portátil accesible.

Lanzamiento del barco de la bahía de Willsboro tiene muelles flotantes de aluminio con características de accesibilidad, espacio de estacionamiento accesible y un baño con bóveda accesible.

Lanzamiento del barco de Westport cuenta con espacios de estacionamiento accesibles, muelles flotantes de metal y baños accesibles.

Los muelles se retiran de los botes de DEC cada año a fines de octubre.

Direcciones

Todas las coordenadas proporcionadas están en grados decimales utilizando el datum NAD83 / WGS84.

Lanzamientos de barcos

  • Lanzamiento del barco en el muelle de Perú se encuentra en la ruta estatal 9. (44.61870 ° N, 73.4457 ° W) Google Maps (sale del sitio web de DEC)
  • Lanzamiento del barco de Port Douglas se encuentra al final de Port Douglas Road (ruta 16 del condado). (44.4847 ° N, 73.4172 ° W) Google Maps (sale del sitio web de DEC)
  • Lanzamiento del barco de la bahía de Willsboro está ubicado a la salida de Willsboro Point Road (Ruta 27 del condado). (44.4008 ° N, 73.3902 ° W) Google Maps (abandona el sitio web de DEC)
  • Lanzamiento del barco de Westport se encuentra en la ruta estatal 22. (44.1888 ° N, 73.4342 ° W) Google Maps (sale del sitio web de DEC)
  • Muelle de Seton House se encuentra en el extremo sur de la costa occidental de la isla Valcour. (44.6092 ° N, 73.4230 ° W) Google Maps (abandona el sitio web de DEC)

Reglas, regulaciones y seguridad al aire libre

Practique los principios de Leave No Trace (abandona el sitio web de DEC) al recrear en Adirondacks para disfrutar del aire libre de manera responsable, minimizar el impacto en los recursos naturales y evitar conflictos con otros usuarios del campo.

Todos los usuarios de las islas del lago Champlain deben seguir todas las regulaciones estatales de uso de la tierra y deben seguir todas las prácticas de seguridad al aire libre para la seguridad del usuario y la protección del recurso.

No amarre los botes en los árboles de la costa.

Planificación y Gestión

El DEC administra estas tierras de acuerdo con el Plan de Manejo de la Unidad del Complejo de las Islas del Lago Champlain (UMP) de 2017 (PDF). Además de los objetivos de gestión, la UMP contiene información detallada sobre características naturales, infraestructura recreativa, geología, historia natural y humana, hábitats, vida silvestre, pesquerías y mucho más.

Tierras estatales cercanas, instalaciones, servicios y otra información

Tierras e instalaciones estatales

Gas se puede obtener en las comunidades cercanas de Perú, Keeseville, Willsboro, Westport, Port Henry y Crown Point.

Alimentos y suministros se puede obtener en las comunidades cercanas de Perú, Keeseville, Willsboro, Westport, Port Henry y Crown Point.

Comida está disponible en las comunidades cercanas de Perú, Keeseville, Willsboro, Essex, Westport, Port Henry y Crown Point.

Alojamiento está disponible en las comunidades cercanas de Keeseville, Willsboro, Essex, Westport y Port Henry.

El Consejo Regional de Turismo de Adirondack (abandona el sitio web de DEC), el Turismo Regional de la Costa de Adirondack (abandona el sitio web de DEC) y la Región del Lago Champlain (abandona el sitio web de DEC) pueden proporcionar información sobre otras actividades recreativas, atracciones y servicios en esta área.

Numerosas guías y mapas están disponibles con información sobre las tierras, aguas, senderos y otras instalaciones recreativas en esta área. Estos se pueden comprar en la mayoría de los minoristas de equipos para exteriores, librerías y librerías en línea.

Puede obtener información adicional, equipo para actividades al aire libre, sugerencias de viajes y visitas guiadas o autoguiadas a través de guías de actividades al aire libre y empresas de equipamiento. Consulte las cámaras de comercio de la zona, los directorios telefónicos o busque listados en Internet.

Considere la posibilidad de contratar un guía al aire libre si tiene poca experiencia o habilidades en el bosque. Consulte la Asociación de Guías al Aire Libre del Estado de Nueva York (sale del sitio web de DEC) para obtener información sobre guías al aire libre.


Artículos relacionados

Los federales probablemente tomaron la decisión en respuesta a una presentación del 23 de abril de 1888 por parte de la compañía San Pedro Harbor, Dock and Land, que tenía su sede en San Francisco y estaba asociada con el ferrocarril Southern Pacific. Esa transacción transfirió una franja de terreno de 22 acres que atravesaba la reserva militar hasta Southern Pacific, propiedad del magnate del ferrocarril Collis P. Huntington, por la principesca suma de $ 1.

La empresa de San Francisco, una empresa fantasma, por supuesto, no tenía ningún derecho a la tierra. Pero eso no impidió que Huntington la usara esencialmente para otorgar la propiedad de la tierra, que no le pertenecía. Una vez que había "adquirido" su camino para construir el ferrocarril a través de la tierra, comenzó a buscar poner bajo su control las 40 acres restantes de tierra.

Primero, compró a un ocupante ilegal con una granja en la tierra con $ 500. El ocupante ilegal, conocido sólo en la historia como "Woodward", se fue, para no volver jamás. Luego, el pionero de San Pedro, James H. Dodson, entró, limpió la tierra, aparentemente sin el permiso de Southern Pacific, y obtuvo ganancias obteniendo cebada allí durante los siguientes tres años.

Dodson duró hasta 1891, cuando Southern Pacific procedió a construir una cerca alrededor de la tierra, y posteriormente ordenó a Dodson que despejara inmediatamente.

“Pensé que también podría irme”, dijo Dodson al Los Angeles Herald en 1895. “Sabía que no tenían más títulos de propiedad de la tierra que yo, pero eran todopoderosos y no tenía dinero que gastar en tratar de luchar contra ellos ".

Luego, el ferrocarril construyó su línea a través de la reserva y arrendó el resto de la tierra a los ganaderos de ovejas, entre otros inquilinos.

Para 1895, el plan de Huntington para tomar el control de la tierra del gobierno se había hecho conocido por el público gracias a una serie de mordaces revelaciones en Los Angeles Herald y Los Angeles Times. (Las historias del Herald se refieren al magnate de los ferrocarriles como "Squatter Huntington" por su descarado acaparamiento de tierras).

La controversia sobre las acciones de Southern Pacific duró más de una década. Finalmente, la ciudad de Los Ángeles demandó al ferrocarril por los derechos de la tierra en 1910. La oficina del fiscal general del estado de California, Ulysses S. Webb, intervino para juzgar el caso contra el ferrocarril en nombre de la ciudad. En junio de 1912, un juez falló a favor de la ciudad y declaró que Southern Pacific no tenía ningún derecho legal a la tierra.

Pero se necesitarían otros cinco años para que Southern Pacific renunciara a todos los reclamos sobre el derecho de paso a través de la reserva militar, lo que finalmente hizo en un acuerdo firmado en julio de 1917.

Para entonces, era un punto discutible, ya que la nueva base militar ya se había abierto.

Vista temprana sin fecha de la Reserva Media, Fort MacArthur. (Museo de Fort MacArthur)

La reserva militar original reservada por México en 1846 se refleja en este mapa de la ciudad de Los Ángeles de 1856 (Bahía de San Pedro a la derecha). (Crédito: Ciudad de Los Ángeles, a través del sitio web Historic California Post, Camps, Stations and Airfields)

El Los Angeles Herald ha superpuesto la descripción graciosa & # 8220Railroad Reservation & # 8221 sobre el mapa de la reserva militar de San Pedro en este mapa de su edición del 28 de enero de 1895. Observe las vías del tren del Pacífico Sur indicadas a la derecha. (Crédito: archivos del Los Angeles Herald)

El Los Angeles Herald ha superpuesto la descripción graciosa & # 8220Railroad Reservation & # 8221 sobre el mapa de la reserva militar de San Pedro en este mapa de su edición del 28 de enero de 1895. Observe las vías del tren del Pacífico Sur indicadas a la derecha. (Crédito: archivos del Los Angeles Herald)

Ya en 1906, el gobierno federal había emitido un informe estimando el costo de proteger el nuevo puerto de Los Ángeles en $ 2 millones. El dinero de ese presupuesto se utilizó para comprar terrenos adicionales sobre Point Fermin de William Kerchoff y George Peck por $ 249,000 en 1910.

Dos años antes, en 1908, el Departamento de Guerra había pedido la construcción de un fuerte en la tierra para proteger la zona costera estratégica, a la luz de las crecientes tensiones internacionales que parecían conducir a la guerra.

Pero fue necesario el estallido de la Primera Guerra Mundial, en el verano de 1914, para acelerar el desarrollo de Fort MacArthur, a pesar de que Estados Unidos no entraría en la guerra hasta tres años después. A principios de octubre de 1914, comenzó oficialmente la construcción del fuerte.

El 31 de octubre de 1914, el Ejército de los Estados Unidos declaró oficialmente el establecimiento del puesto de artillería costera, aunque todavía estaba en la fase inicial de construcción en ese momento.

Retomaremos la historia allí la semana que viene en la Parte 2.

Fuentes: Daily Breeze archiva "Fort MacArthur", sitio web de Fort Wiki "Fort MacArthur History", del Centro de Historia Militar de California, Departamento Militar de California, Postes, campamentos, estaciones y aeródromos históricos de California sitio web Los Angeles Herald archivos Los Angeles Times archivos San Pedro Archivos piloto de noticias Wikipedia.


¿Qué batalla del estado de Nueva York fue más importante para el estado?

En la página de Facebook del Blog de Historia de Nueva York, recientemente hicimos la siguiente pregunta:

¿Qué batalla en la historia del estado de Nueva York y # 8217 tuvo el impacto más significativo en el estado?

Las respuestas fueron sorprendentemente variadas e incluyeron respuestas de la Guerra de Kieft & # 8217 de 1643-45 (la guerra entre los colonos de Nueva Holanda y los habitantes nativos del valle del río Hudson también conocida como la Guerra de Wappinger) a la Guerra Anti-Renta de 1839-1845.

Hemos revisado las sugerencias y hemos elaborado una breve lista de cinco batallas * que se destacan como las más importantes para nosotros (con breves descripciones de Wikipedia). ¿Qué opinas? [Leer más & # 8230] sobre ¿Qué batalla del estado de Nueva York fue más importante para el estado?


Comprar tiempo: la batalla de la isla Valcour

On July 7, 1776, Major General Philip Schuyler, commander of the Northern Department, convened a council of war at Crown Point, New York, to assess the military situation following the American retreat from Canada. In attendance were Major General Horatio Gates, newly appointed commander of the nonexistent American army in Canada, Major General John Sullivan, and a recently promoted brigadier general, Benedict Arnold. The situation looked grim. The council decided to abandon the tenuous position at Crown Point and withdraw American forces to a more defensible position at Fort Ticonderoga. This decision, however, left only a modest flotilla of small wooden ships on Lake Champlain, under the command of Commodore Jacobus Wynkoop of New York, as the last line of defense between the approaching British and Ticonderoga. Therefore, it was decided to augment the fleet by constructing more vessels in an attempt to thwart the expected British invasion. The small American fleet constructed on Lake Champlain would eventually meet the British in the Battle of Valcour Island, a battle that, in all likelihood, saved the American cause.

Benedict Arnold, who had proven his military skills during the American expedition into Canada, was given the assignment of overseeing construction of the American fleet being built at Skenesborough, New York. Although serving in the Continental Army, Arnold had significant experience in ships and shipbuilding. Before the war, he had made his living shipping goods to the Caribbean from New England and had amassed considerable wealth as a result. Arnold’s arrival at Skenesborough gave the American shipbuilding effort the leadership and experience it needed to make it an effective fighting force. Under the leadership of Wynkoop, the strength of the American fleet had actually deteriorated. As a result, Arnold assumed overall command of the fleet on August 7, 1776.

Arnold was hampered by serious problems from the outset. He had shortages of almost every type imaginable: iron for nails, food, guns, experienced ship builders, and most important, men with seafaring experience to man the ships. General Washington, defending New York City, could not spare any seamen to Arnold. To make matters worse, Arnold was also facing a court martial for being accused of looting Montreal during the retreat from Canada. The charges were eventually dropped, but precious time had been wasted in the process. Eventually, experienced shipbuilders from New England, New York, New Jersey, and Philadelphia trickled in to Skenesborough, and construction of the fleet began in earnest. There was still a shortage of men to serve as crews for his ships. Lacking volunteers, Arnold was forced to draft early 300 men, primarily from two New Hampshire regiments. Yet, despite the critical manpower shortage, Arnold refused to request marines to accompany his flotilla. During his expedition into Canada, a number of marines accompanied the American forces, and Arnold, for some undetermined reason, found them to be “the refuse of every regiment.” By October 1776, the American fleet was comprised of sixteen ships. These included the schooners Royal Savage, equipped with four six-pound guns and eight four-pounders the Venganza y Liberty with four four-pounders and four two-pounders each and the sloop Empresa, armed with twelve four-pounders. los Liberty was eventually stripped of its armament and transformed into a hospital and courier ship for the fleet. In addition to these ships, the American fleet consisted of four row galleys (the Lee, Trumbull, Washington, and Arnold’s flagship Congress), each armed with one eighteen-pounder, one twelve-pounder, two nine-pounders and six six-pounders. The smallest boats in Arnold’s fleet were eight gondolas. Small, low in the water to provide a minimal target, and easy to maneuver in the confined waters of Lake Champlain, the gondolas were powered by sail and long oars known as sweeps. For their size, they were relatively heavily armed with one twelve-pound gun in the bow, a pair of nine-pounders amidships, and a number of swivel guns firing grapeshot to rake the enemy’s masts and rigging and to discourage boarding. The gondolas in Arnold’s flotilla were the Philadelphia, Boston, New Haven, Providence, New York, Connecticut, Spitfire, y Jersey. In spite of time constraints and a host of other problems, Arnold had managed to assemble a significant force of boats to meet the challenge at hand.

The British forces in Canada, under the command of General Sir Guy Carleton, immediately recognized the importance of controlling Lake Champlain in order to carry out the planned British two-pronged invasion that called for forces advancing south from Canada to link-up with General William Howe’s forces in the Hudson Valley. If this could be achieved, New York and New England would be effectively severed from one another and the rebellion all but finished. Lake Champlain was vital to the British forces moving south, as upstate New York had few roads or trails, and troops had to be transported southward by boat. However, the British received word that the Americans on Lake Champlain were constructing a fleet to challenge British movements. As a result, the British invasion was delayed until a fleet of their own could be assembled and British naval control firmly established on the lake.

Unlike the Americans, the British faced few shortages or other problems in building their fleet. They had ample numbers of guns, supplies and experienced men for their ships. Twelve prefabricated gunboats arrived from England and were reassembled at St. Jean on the Richelieu River, which flowed into Lake Champlain. Three ships, the schooners Maria y Carelton, and the gondola Loyal Convert, were stripped down and dragged overland from the St. Lawrence River to St. Jean, while a fourth, the 180-ton Inflexible, by far the largest ship in either fleet and armed with eighteen twelve-pounders, was knocked down and reassembled at St. Jean. In addition to these ships, the British constructed a large radeau, a heavily armed, flat-bottomed sailing scow generally used for bombarding shore installations. Named the Thunderer, she was armed with six twenty-four-pounders, six twelve-pounders, and two howitzers, making her the most heavily armed ship on the lake and easily outgunning anything in the American fleet. All told, the British fleet, under the naval command of Lt. Thomas Pringle, consisted of one ship, two schooners, one gondola, one radeau, twenty gunboats, each armed with a brass field piece and two howitzers, four long boats equipped with carriage guns, and twenty-four unarmed long boats carrying provisions and other equipment. In addition to outnumbering the Americans in sheer numbers of ships, the British fleet also possessed an overwhelming superiority in guns. Arnold’s fleet could throw about 600 pounds of shot compared to the British flotilla’s 1,100 pounds. As a result, the British felt quite confident as they sortied out of St. Jean on October 4.

Arnold clearly understood the scope of British naval superiority. Through a network of spies, deserters, and prisoners, he had gained a fairly clear picture of British intentions and general time frame of when they would set sail. Knowing he could not attack, he decided to let the British attack him. Arnold deployed his fleet in the narrow, rocky channel between Valcour Island and the western shore of Lake Champlain. The narrowness of the channel would force the British to attack singly and would not allow them to bring as many guns to bear as on the open water. The only disadvantage was that if anything should go wrong, the Americans would not have an easy means of escape. Once in position, all that Arnold and his men could do was wait.

Sailing southward down Lake Champlain on the morning of October 11, 1776, the British skirted the eastern shore of Valcour Island, unaware that the American fleet lay on the other side. Shortly before 11:00 a.m., British lookouts spotted the Royal Savage, and turned to attack. The strong northerly wind, however, made it difficult for the British to turn toward the Americans. As a result, Inflexible remained out of action for most of the battle.

The battle began inauspiciously for the Americans. Royal Savage immediately ran aground and was abandoned after being bombarded mercilessly. She was later captured and burned by the British. Yet, while outgunned, the Americans exacted a heavy price of the enemy. The British schooner Carleton took a savage beating, with most of her crew killed or wounded. She was nearly abandoned until towed to safety. A British gunboat was destroyed when a shot touched off its powder magazine, and two others were also sunk.

Eventually, however, British guns began to find the range and pounded Arnold’s fleet. Congress y Jersey suffered heavy damage, and Filadelfia was holed by several shots, at least one of which pierced her below the waterline and left her a sinking wreck. To make matters worse, Inflexible arrived by the late afternoon, and in the waning daylight hours, bombarded the Americans with its heavy guns. As darkness fell, the British withdrew into a line south of the Americans, confident that victory would be theirs with the destruction of the American fleet at daylight. Arnold, however, had other plans. Gathering his officers together, he decided to make a run south through the British fleet. Aided by a thick fog that had settled over the lake during the evening hours and Pringle’s failure to post adequate sentries, Arnold arranged his ships in single file, with Trumbull at the head of the column, and ordered his men to wrap their oars in cloth to muffle the sound. Guided by small hooded lanterns at the stern of each ship, Arnold’s surviving ships rowed quietly past the British, at times passing close enough to hear voices from the enemy vessels. Once clear, Arnold’s men rowed furiously to widen the distance.

As dawn broke on the morning of October 12, the British were shocked to discover that Arnold and the American fleet had escaped. After a desperate search around Valcour Island, Pringle turned his fleet south in pursuit of the rebel flotilla, but a strong wind from the south prevented them from gaining any ground on the Americans. That same wind, however, also prevented Arnold from increasing the gap between his ships and the enemy. At Schuyler Island, Arnold allowed his exhausted men to rest. Three gondolas, Providence, New York, y Jersey, were found to be too heavily damaged to be of further use. After they were stripped of their guns and any other useful equipment, they were scuttled.

On October 13, the wind changed direction, blowing from the north. Arnold’s luck had run out. The British fleet quickly caught up with the Americans near Split Rock. In a possible attempt to buy time and allow the smaller vessels time to escape, Arnold ordered Congress y Washington to hold their positions against the British onslaught. Washington was quickly overwhelmed and struck her colors. Arnold’s flagship, Congress, took a fearful pounding, and the rest of the fleet received more damage. Arnold had but one option. He ordered his remaining ships into Buttonmould Bay, a shallow and rocky body of water where the British deep-draft ships could not follow, and ran them aground. He then ordered his men to strip the ships of anything of value, and the vessels were set ablaze with their rattlesnake “Don’t Tread on Me” banners still flying high. Arnold and the surviving men of the fleet marched to Crown Point, where they burned the remaining buildings and stores. They then marched to Fort Ticonderoga, carrying the wounded in slings made from the tattered sails of the American fleet.

Carleton arrived at the remains of Crown Point on October 20. Snow was already falling as the upstate New York winter quickly approached. Carleton was shaken by the unexpectedly fierce resistance offered by the Americans under Arnold. With the weather conditions quickly deteriorating, Carleton had no other choice but to retreat back into Canada to his winter quarters, effectively ending the British threat from the north until at least the spring of 1777. The Battle of Valcour Island is significant for several important reasons. Benedict Arnold, a skilled soldier whose reputation would forever be sullied by his later actions, constructed the first American naval fleet. While Valcour Island resulted in a tactical victory for the British, in the long run, the battle proved to be a strategic victory for the American quest for independence. For the cost of 80 men dead, 120 captured, and the destruction of his fleet, Arnold had accomplished the objective of disrupting the British invasion from Canada. By causing the British to postpone their plans until the spring, Arnold had bought the rebels time to gather strength and resources that would be utilized at the Battle of Saratoga, the turning point in the War of Independence. The significance of what Arnold accomplished at Valcour Island cannot be denied. One hundred years later, the great naval theorist Alfred Thayer Mahan observed that “the little American navy was wiped out, but never had any force, big or small, lived to better purpose.”

For more information on the Battle of Valcour Island and Benedict Arnold, read:

William M. Fowler, Jr., Rebels Under Sail: The American Navy during the Revolution

Willard Sterne Randall, Benedict Arnold: Patriot and Traitor

E.B. Potter, The Naval Academy Illustrated History of the United States Navy

Stephen Howarth, To Shining Sea

Claire Brandt, The Man In the Mirror

Robert Leckie, George Washington’s War

Philip K. Lundeberg, The Gunboat Philadelphia and the Defense of Lake Champlain in 1776



VALCOUR BAY - History

USS Valcour (AVP-55) History

A BIT OF HISTORY : ". THE UNITED STATES NAVY IN "DESERT SHIELD" I "DESERT STORM". " http://www.gulflink.osd.mil/histories/db/navy/usnavy_017.html [17NOV2003]

Navy presence was embodied in the "little white fleet" of USS Duxbury Bay (AVP-38), USS GREENWICH BAY (AVP 41) and USS VALCOUR (AVP 55) - former seaplane tenders - which rotated duties as flagship for Commander- Middle East Force and his staff. All three ships were painted white to counter the region's extreme heat. The flagship served as the primary protocol platform of the United States throughout the region. Accompanied by one or two other rotationally deployed warships, the Middle East Force (MIDEASTFOR) provided the initial U.S. military response to any crisis in the region, as well as humanitarian and emergency assistance.

For the next 20 years, three or four ships at a time were assigned to MIDEASTFOR - generally a command ship and two or three small combatants such as destroyers or frigates. Because temperatures in the Persian Gulf, Red Sea and Indian Ocean reached as high as 130 degrees, the non-air-conditioned ships rotated every few months - a practice still followed today, with the exception of the single forward-deployed command ship.

A BIT OF HISTORY : ". 1962 - USS Valcour (AVP-55) provides medical care to a merchant seaman from tanker SS Manhattan in the Persian Gulf. " http://www.history.navy.mil/wars/datesmay.htm [17NOV2003]

A BIT OF HISTORY : ". Tender Rejoins The Fleet - Page 12 - Naval Aviation News - December 1951. " WebSite: http://www.history.navy.mil/nan/backissues/1950s/1951/dec51.pdf [25JUL2004]

Circa Unknown
Can you identify the Month and or Year?

A BIT OF HISTORY : ". USS Valcour (AVP-55, later AGF-1), 1946-1977. " http://www.history.navy.mil/photos/sh-usn/usnsh-v/avp55.htm [17NOV2003]

USS Valcour, a 1,766-ton Barnegat class small seaplane tender, was built at Houghton, Washington, and was commissioned in July 1946. After shakedown training at San Diego, she proceeded to the East Coast in September 1946 for duty with the Atlantic Fleet. She then operated out of Norfolk, Va. Quonset Point, R.I. Cristobal, Canal Zone and Guantanamo Bay, Cuba tending seaplanes through mid-1949.

Designated flagship for Commander, Middle East Force, Valcour departed Norfolk in August 1949 for the first of sixteen deployments to the Middle East. She returned to Norfolk in March 1950 and conducted a second tour as Middle East Force flagship between September 1950 and March 1951. In May 1951, while departing Norfolk for independent ship exercises, she suffered a steering casualty and veered across the bow of the collier Thomas Tracey. The ensuing collision ruptured an aviation gasoline fuel tank and started a raging fire that took the lives of 36 men. After a major firefighting and salvage operation, she was brought back into port the following day. Valcour then underwent an extensive overhaul, during which air conditioning was installed and her 5"/38 gun was removed to compensate for the added weight.

Between 1952 and 1965 Valcour deployed every year to the Middle East as one of a trio of ships that served alternately as flagship for Commander Middle East Force. Through 1961 Valcour followed a highly predictable schedule, departing Norfolk in January, relieving USS Duxbury Bay (AVP-38) upon arrival on station, being relieved by USS Greenwich Bay (AVP-41), and returning to Norfolk in August. Highlights of this service included the boarding, salvage, and return to its crew of the burning and abandoned Italian tanker Argea Prima in May 1955 and a visit to the Seychelles Islands in 1960. She was the first U. S. Navy ship to call there in 48 years. In around 1960 Valcour received some conspicuous equipment upgrades, including a tripod mast with a newer air search radar and a tall communications antenna which, with its deckhouse, replaced the quadruple 40mm gun mount on her fantail. She completed her fifteenth Middle East cruise in March 1965.

In a 1965 force realignment, Valcour's two running mates were ordered decommissioned and Valcour was selected to be the sole Middle East flagship. As such, she was reclassified AGF-1 in December 1965 and departed the United States for her new home port of Bahrain in April 1966. Though designated the permanent Middle East Force flagship in 1971, in January 1972 she was selected for inactivation. After relief as flagship by La Salle (AGF-3), in November 1972 she arrived in Norfolk following transits of the Indian and Pacific Oceans. Valcour was decommissioned in January 1973. In March her stripped hulk was towed to Solomons Island, Md., where it was used by the Naval Ordnance Laboratory for electromagnetic pulse experiments. She was sold for scrap in June 1977.

AVP-55
Displacement 1,776
Length 310'9'
Beam 41'2"
Draw 11'11"
Speed 18.5 k
Complement 367
Armament 1 5", 8 40mm, 8 20mm, 2 rkt
Class Barnegat

Valcour (AVP-55) was laid down on 21 December 1942 at Houghton, Wash., by the Lake Washington Shipyard, launched on 5 June 1943, and sponsored by Mrs. H. C. Davis, the wife of Capt. H. C. Davis, the intelligence officer for the 13th Naval District. Valco ur was taken to the Puget Sound Navy Yard for completion, but the heavy load of war-damage repairs conducted by that yard meant that her construction assumed a lower priority than the repair of combatant vessels. As a result, Valcour was not completed unt il well after World War II ended. She was commissioned at the Puget Sound Naval Shipyard (the former Puget Sound Navy Yard) on 5 July 1946, Comdr. Barnet T. Talbott in command.

Ordered to the Atlantic Fleet upon completion of her shakedown (conducted between 9 August and 9 September off San Diego) Valcour transited the Panama Canal between 17 and 21 September and reached the New York Naval Shipyard on 26 September for postshake down availability. Valcour subsequently operated out of Norfolk, Va. Quonset Point, R.I. Cristobal, Canal Zone and Guantanamo Bay, Cuba tending seaplanes of the Fleet Air Wings, Atlantic, through mid-1949.

Having received orders designating her as flagship for the Commander, Middle Eastern Force (ComMidEastFor), Valcour departed Norfolk on 29 August 1949 steamed across the Atlantic and the Mediterranean stopped at Gilbraltar and at Golfe Juan France tra nsited the Suez Canal and arrived at Aden, a British protectorate, on 24 September. Over the months that ensued, Valcour touched at ports on the Indian Ocean and Persian Gulf (Bahrein, Kuwait Ras Al Mishab, Basra Ras Tanura, Muscat Bombay India Colomb o, Ceylon, and Karachi, Pakistan). She returned to Norfolk on 6 March 1950 (via Aden Suez, Pireaus, Greece Sfax, Tunisia, and Gibraltar). Late in the summer (after a period of leave, upkeep, and training) the seaplane tender returned to the Middle East f or her second tour as ComMidEastFor flagship which lasted from 5 September 1950 to 15 March 1951.

On the morning of 14 May 1951, two months after she returned to Norfolk, Valcour headed out to sea for independent ship exercises. While passing the collier SS Thomas Tracy off Cape Henry, Va., she suffered a steering casualty and power failure. As Valco ur veered sharply across the path of the oncoming collier, she sounded warning signals. Thomas Tracy attempted to make an emergency turn to starboard but her bow soon plowed into the seaplane tender's starboard side, rupturing an aviation gas fuel tank.

An intense fire soon broke out and, fed by the hightest aviation gas, spread rapidly. To make matters worse, water began flooding into the ship's ruptured hull. Although fire and rescue parties on board went to work immediately, the gasoline-fed inferno forced many of the tender's crew to leap overboard into the swirling currents of Hampton Roads to escape the flames that soon enveloped Valcour's starboard side. The situation at that point looked so severe that Capt. Eugene Tatom, the tender's commanding officer, gave the order to abandon ship.

Thomas Tracy, meanwhile, fared better. Fires in that ship were largely confined to the forward hold and she suffered no injuries to her crew she managed to return to Newport News with her cargo (10,000 tons of coal) intact. Valcour, on the other hand, b ecame the object of exhaustive salvage operations. Rescue ships including the submarine rescue ship Sunbird (ASR-15) and the Coast Guard tug Cherokee (WAT-165) sped to the scene of the tragedy. Fire and rescue parties (in some cases forced to utilize gas masks) succeeded in bringing the blaze under control but not before 11 men had died, and 16 more had been injured. Another 25 were listed as "missing."

Towed back to Norfolk (reaching port at 0200 on the 15th) Valcour underwent an extensive overhaul over the ensuing months. During those repairs, improvements were made in shipboard habitability (airconditioning was installed) and the removal of her singl e-mount 5-inch gun forward gave the ship a silhouette unique for ships in her class. The reconstruction task was finally completed on 4 December 1951

Valcour rotated yearly between the United States and the Middle East over the next 15 years, conducting yearly deployments as one of the trio of ships in her class that served alternately as flagship for Com MidEastFor. There were several highlights to t he ship's lengthy Middle East deployments. In July of 1953, during the ship's fourth cruise, Valcour aided a damaged cargo vessel in the Indian Ocean and then escorted her through a violent typhoon to Bombay, India. In May 1955, men from Valcour boarded t he blazing and abandoned Italian tanker Argea Prima at the entrance to the Persian Gulf, even though the ship at the time was laden with a cargo of 72,000 barrels of crude oil and proceeded to control the fires. Once the seaplane tender's fire and rescue party had performed their salvage operation, Argea Prima's crew reboarded the ship and she continued her voyage. Later, Valcour received a plaque from the owners of the tanker in appreciation of the assistance rendered to their ship.

Valcour performed her duties so efficiently that the Chief of Naval Operations congratulated ComMidEastFor for her outstanding contribution to good foreign relations and for her enhancement of the prestige of the United States. The ship was also adjudged the outstanding seaplane tender in the Atlantic Fleet in 1957 and was awarded the Battle Readiness and Excellence Plaque and the Navy "E" in recognition of the accomplishment. During Valcour's 1960 cruise, she became the first American ship in 48 years t o visit the Seychelles Islands, an archipelago in the Indian Ocean. In 1963, Valcour earned her second Navy "E".

In between her deployments to the Middle East Valcour conducted local operations out of Little Creek, Va. Guantanamo Bay and Kingston, Jamaica. In 1965, the ship qualified as a "blue nose" by crossing the Arctic Circle during operations in the Norwegia n Sea.

She completed her 15th cruise on 13 March 1965 and soon thereafter was selected to continue those duties on a permanent basis. She was reclassified as a miscellaneous command flagship, AGF-1, on 15 December 1965 and departed the United States for the Mid dle East on 18 April 1966 for her 16th MidEastFor cruise.

Valcour's mission was that of command post, living facility, and communications center for ComMidEastFor and his staff of 15 officers. Demonstrating American interest and good will in that area of the globe, Valcour distributed textbooks, medicine, cloth ing, and domestic machinery (such as sewing machines, etc.) to the needy, under the auspices of Project "Handclasp." Men from Valcour helped to promote good relations in the countries visited by assisting in the construction of orphanages and schools by participating in public functions and by entertaining dignitaries military representatives, and civilians. In addition while watching merchant shipping lanes, Valcour stood ready to rescue stricken ships and to evacuate Americans during internal crises.

Homeported at Bahrain (an independent sheikdom in the Persian Gulf) since 1965, Valcour became the permanent flagship for ComMidEastFor in 1971. Relieved as flagship by La Salle (LPD-3) in the spring of 1972, Valcour returned to Norfolk, Va., via Colombo Singapore Naval Seaplane Base Brisbane, Australia Wellington, N.Z. Tahiti, Panama, and Fort Lauderdale, Fla. After four days at the last-named port, she arrived at Norfolk on 11 November, completing the 18,132-mile voyage from the Middle East.

After being stripped of all usable gear over the ensuing months, Valcour was decommissioned on 15 January 1973 and shifted to the Inactive Ship Facility at Portsmouth, Va., so that she could be prepared for service as a test-bed for electromagnetic tests held under the auspices of the Naval Ordnance Laboratory (NOL), White Oak, Md. Her name was struck from the Navy list simultaneously with her decommissioning. Towed from Norfolk to Solomons Island, Md. branch of NOL the following March, she soon thereaft er began her service as a test ship for the EMPRESS (Electromagnetic Pulse Radiation Environment Simulation for Ships) facility. The erstwhile seaplane tender and command ship was sold by the Navy in May 1977.


Revolutionary War Gunboat Spitfire

In 1997, Lake Champlain Maritime Museum’s Lake Survey team discovered Benedict Arnold’s 1776 gondola, intact and upright, on the bottom of Lake Champlain. Spitfire was the last unaccounted-for vessel of the Battle of Valcour Bay.

Spitfire is the sister ship to Benedict Arnold’s seven other 54′ gunboats constructed in 1776 in Skenesborough (now Whitehall), NY. These vessels were built as the Americans prepared for the British advance from Canada in 1776. British and American forces met at the Battle of Valcour Bay, October 11, 1776. Spitfire was sunk by the British and remains on the bottom of the lake, almost 250 years later.

This shipwreck is in pristine condition, with the mast still standing, and the bow gun still in place. The remarkable condition is due to the lake’s cold dark fresh waters. And the depth makes her inaccessible by recreational divers.

Lake Champlain Maritime Museum has constructed a replica of one of Spitfire’s sister ships, Filadelfia. los Philadelphia II is on display at the Museum.

Notice: los Spitfire site is protected by the Sunken Military Craft Act which prohibits any disturbance or impacts to the vessel or its contents and associated debris field. Violations can result in fines of up to $100,000 per day, liability for damages, and confiscation of vessels.

Painting of the Spitfire by Ernie Haas. Reprinted with permission.

Gunboat Identified

When the gunboat was located in 1997, the Museum termed it the “missing gunboat” because the historic sources were unclear as to which of the eight American gunboats it was. At the time, historians, including Museum Director Emeritus Art Cohn, Peter Barranco, J. Robert Maguire, and George Quintal worked together to reexamine all known sources while initiating a search for new information. The team concluded that the gunboats New Haven, Providence, y Boston all made it to Arnold’s Bay and were destroyed by Arnold to prevent their falling into British hands. The team was left to conclude that the “missing” gunboat was, by process of elimination, either Connecticut o Spitfire.

Townsend document and Drawing of Spitfire, compiled from ROV footage and verification dives.

In 1999, a new document surfaced which confirmed all the previous research and put a name on the “Missing” gunboat. The manuscript, now known as the “Townsend Document” was provided by Mr. John Townsend, a historical book dealer from Connecticut. The extraordinary document is entitled “A Return of the fleet belonging to the United States of America on Lake Champlain under the Command of Brigadier General Arnold…” dated at Ticonderoga October 22, 1776.

Mr. Townsend believed the document was acquired by his grandmother. The manuscript lists each vessel by name and each vessel’s commander and ordnance. The final column on the document is titled “The fate of the Fleet.” This column details the disposition of each of the seventeen vessels in the American naval force on Lake Champlain and concludes that the vessel Lake Champlain Maritime Museum located in 1997 is the Gunboat Spitfire.

Ongoing Research Site

Spitfire presents a tremendous opportunity for research, documentation, and public engagement around the history of the Revolutionary War on Lake Champlain and the founding of the nation. As the United States heads toward the 250 th anniversary in 2026, preserving and interpreting Spitfire will be a keystone moment to tell new stories about the people, the place, and the complex stories of the beginnings of the United States.

Lake Champlain Maritime Museum is working in partnership with national, state, and local partners to develop a long-term research plan for this significant historic vessel location in Lake Champlain.

Spitfire is listed on the National Register of Historic Places and has been deemed Nationally Significant due to its role in the American Revolution. We ask the community to please respect the shipwreck and the research and management process. Please do not attempt to locate or interfere with this extremely sensitive archaeological site.

Sabick, C., A. Lessman, and S. McLaughlin, Lake Champlain Underwater Cultural Resources Survey, Volume II: 1997 Results and Volume III: 1998 Results. Lake Champlain Maritime Museum, 2000.


Then Again: Benedict Arnold’s strategic retreat from the Battle of Valcour Island

Vermont artist Ernie Haas depicted an incident from the Battle of Valcour Island in his painting “Cannon Exploding Aboard Gunboat New York, October 17, 1776.” Courtesy of Ernie Haas and the Lake Champlain Maritime Museum

Editor’s note: Mark Bushnell is a Vermont journalist and historian. He is the author of “Hidden History of Vermont” and “It Happened in Vermont.”

The men had little idea what to expect. Most of them were new to the sea, having been drawn only recently from the ranks of civilians and soldiers. And their commanders had kept them largely in the dark about what they would be facing – a much larger, better-trained and better-armed squadron, which just happened to be from the world’s most fearsome navy.

These sailors, numbering probably about 500 (though some accounts say 800), were under the command of Gen. Benedict Arnold. This was October 1776, years before his betrayal of the American cause, when he was still one of the would-be country’s most audacious and skilled military leaders.

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During that summer of ’76, as the Declaration of Independence was being hammered out hundreds of miles to the south in Philadelphia, Arnold and these men were assigned to deprive the British control of Lake Champlain. The waterway was vital to the British war plan, and thus key to America’s defenses. The British intended to sail large numbers of troops down the lake. They would seize the twin forts at Ticonderoga on the New York shore and Mount Independence, directly across from it on the Vermont side. They would then rendezvous with British forces near Albany, thus isolating New England from the rest of the former colonies.

Arnold’s orders were to amass a small group of gunboats and pit them against the world’s preeminent naval power. The very idea reeks of hubris, something the supremely confident Arnold had in no short supply. Still, he had doubts about his men: “We have a wretched motley crew in the fleet, the marines (are) the refuse of every regiment, and the seamen, few of them ever wet with salt water,” he wrote his commanding officer.

Much of the American Navy, which consisted of little more than a dozen, hastily constructed gunboats, was stationed with Arnold off Isle LaMotte, at the north end of the lake. They were there to harry British forces venturing south.

Benedict Arnold was one of America’s most competent military leaders at the start of the Revolution. Wikimedia Commons

Arnold’s spies and scouts reported that the British were hauling large ships down the Richelieu River. When they reached Lake Champlain, he knew, the odds were long against the American fleet surviving. The British flotilla was made up of three dozen vessels, including four large ships. Among them were the flagship Inflexible, with three tiers of sails, and an even larger ketch, the Thunderer, which, in addition to six 12-pound guns and a siege howitzer, carried six 24-pounders. Arnold didn’t have a single gun that large. The British also had two dozen gunboats and scores of canoes, carrying perhaps 1,000 Native Americans warriors.

Against this seasoned armada, whose guns could throw twice as many pounds of metal with each broadside as his fleet, Arnold realized he had to use his only advantage, his superior knowledge of the lake. He ordered his ships to sail into Valcour Bay, between Valcour Island and the New York shore, just south of current-day Plattsburgh.

The location had tactical advantages for the Americans. The forested island would conceal the American gunboats, which meant that the British would likely be past the bay’s mouth before spotting them. That would mean the British would have to tack north into the wind to engage in battle. The tricky maneuver, upwind and into a narrow bay, meant the British ships couldn’t attack en masse, Arnold reasoned.

Arnold anchored his fleet of 15 vessels – including a pair of two-masted schooners, eight gondolas, three galleys, a sloop and a cutter – in a crescent formation to allow them to catch the British in a crossfire. The vessels were anchored in such a way that their crews could quickly move them from a broadside firing position to one in which their bows presented themselves to the enemy, making a smaller target.

The British sailed south on Oct. 11. Sir Guy Carleton, royal governor of Quebec, had taken command despite his inexperience. He expected to find the Americans in Cumberland Bay, closer to Plattsburgh, or else fleeing to Ticonderoga. (A year later, three of his top officers would take the extraordinary step of writing to the London Gazette, claiming that Carleton had intelligence that the Americans were in Valcour Bay. If he heard such reports, he dismissed them.) He sailed his forces toward Cumberland Bay and was surprised not to find the Americans.

Continuing south in search of Arnold’s fleet, the British were in a tattered formation, strung out for miles. At about 9 o’clock that morning, after passing the mouth of Valcour Bay, they spotted five American vessels – a schooner and sloop and three row galleys – on the open lake and pursued them. Arnold may have sent the vessels out as bait. The British struggled to sail against the north wind, as Arnold had anticipated. The galleys and the sloop had no trouble making it back to their spots in the crescent. The schooner, the Royal Savage, however, ran aground near Valcour Island and had to be abandoned under heavy fire.

The narrow channel meant the British had to rely heavily on their gunboats, which were nimbler craft. The larger ships had to remain at a distance, limiting their effectiveness. The Thunderer, for all its firepower, proved difficult to sail, and played no part in the action.

For seven hours, the battle raged on. The Americans had no chance at victory. As dusk fell, Carleton pulled back his ships to rest and finish the job the next morning. Arnold gathered his captains to assess damages. They had lost the Royal Savage. A second boat, the Philadelphia, was leaking badly and would soon sink. Several other vessels were badly damaged, but still seaworthy. In all, the Americans had lost about 60 men. Many others were wounded. Worst, they had fired three-quarters of their gunpowder. Continuing the fight was not a reasonable option.

That night, Carleton had left his nearest vessel a mile from the shore. Arnold saw an opportunity. He could have retreated north, between Valcour Island and the mainland, but chose a more daring course. He and his men would slip past the anchored British fleet and race south to the safety of the American forts.

An 18th century diagram of the Battle of Valcour Island. Wikimedia Commons

Arnold ordered the surviving vessels to sail and row with muffled oars. To keep in formation, the men rigged small lanterns to shine on a patch of white chalked on each vessel’s stern. The light would only be visible from about 50 feet. A fog had settled, further obscuring the flotilla. With the British distracted by the noise of their carpenters making repairs and the light from the still-burning Royal Savage, the Americans made their way south along the shore.

At daybreak, the British were stunned to find Valcour Bay deserted. They eventually spotted the fleeing Americans and gave chase. As the British gained on them, Arnold considered making another stand along the west shore, but ultimately decided their best chance was flight. He ordered his fleet to make for the American-held fort at Crown Point, on the New York shore north of Ticonderoga. One of his ships, the Washington, was leaking badly. Overtaken by the Inflexible, the Washington surrendered. The British took 106 prisoners.

Four American vessels managed to slip away and eventually made it all the way to Fort Ticonderoga. Arnold wasn’t so lucky. Several British ships chased his ship, the Congress, and four American gunboats. “They kept up an incessant fire on us for about five hours,” he later reported. Out of ammunition and with nearly half his crew dead or wounded, Arnold realized he couldn’t reach Crown Point, still 10 miles to the south. Rather than surrender, he ordered the vessels into Ferris Bay (now named Arnold’s Bay) on the east shore. He knew it was too shallow for the larger British ships to follow.

On Arnold’s orders, the Americans grounded their vessels and set them ablaze as British boarding parties rowed closer and long-range cannon shots rained down. Men quickly pulled the wounded from the vessels. In his haste, an American gunner ignored the pleas of a Lt. Goldsmith, who had been injured through the thigh. When the boat’s powder magazine exploded, Goldsmith’s body was blasted into the air. Arnold was furious and “threatened to run the gunner through on the spot,” a witness recalled.

Arnold and his men retreated overland, staying near the shore, then were met by boats and ferried to the New York side. They reached Crown Point barely ahead of the British. Arnold ordered the fort burned. They marched on to Ticonderoga, reaching it on Oct. 15.

Five days later, Carleton visited his troops encamped at Crown Point. Snow covered their tents and the distant Adirondacks. His men had crushed Arnold’s navy, but he was in no mood to tackle the next, more formidable, obstacles. Fort Ticonderoga and Mount Independence were braced for an attack, with 13,000 soldiers defending them. Judging that his men lacked time to build proper winter quarters, Carleton pulled his troops north to the comforts of their Canadian bases.

The British would have to wait until the following year to continue their movement south. When they returned, they would face a much better prepared Continental Army and an enflamed and well-armed citizenry, which would ultimately defeat them at Saratoga.

A depiction of the Battle of Valcour Island by an unknown artist. Wikimedia Commons

Correction: The photo captions of the two paintings of the battle were switched in an earlier version of this article.


Ver el vídeo: Battle of Valcour (Junio 2022).


Comentarios:

  1. Darnel

    Esta magnífica idea, por cierto, solo cae

  2. Sever

    En mi opinión te equivocas. Escríbeme por MP, nosotros nos encargamos.

  3. Chadbyrne

    Lo siento, no va conmigo. Hay otras variantes?

  4. Moogutaur

    Por ejemplo, tengo algo para compartir, creo que no solo para mí.

  5. Vonris

    Hay algo en esto. Muchas gracias por su ayuda con este problema.

  6. Alhmanic

    Estás cometiendo un error. Envíeme un correo electrónico a PM.

  7. Avshalom

    En mi opinión se equivoca. Lo sugiero que debatir. Escríbeme en PM, hablaremos.

  8. Daim

    sur)))



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